Research Outputs

This page provides access to the outputs to date, including learning briefs, working papers, research reports, shorter summaries and academic outputs.

Learning Briefs 

These six learning briefs provide guidance for civil society organisations (CSOs) [non-governmental organisations] to support effective enterprise roles in water and sanitation, including for the poor and disadvantaged. The six learning briefs cover key areas important for designing strategic, effective programming and engagement.

Policy Briefs 

These four policy briefs draw on research findings from Enterprise in WASH, and are designed to provide government stakeholders with information to guide policy development related to WASH enterprises in Indonesia and Vietnam.
Policy Brief 1: Sustainability of rural water systems in Indonesia
Policy-Brief-1
(English version)
(Bahasa Indonesia version)
Policy Brief 2: Entrepreneurship in sanitation, Indonesia
Policy-Brief-2
(English version)
(Bahasa Indonesia version)
Policy Brief 3: Rural water supply systems and the role of the private sector
Policy-Brief-3
(English version)
(Vietnamese version)
Policy Brief 4: Facilitating sanitation supply in Vietnam
Policy-Brief-4
(English version)
(Vietnamese version)

Working Papers 

What’s the state of the evidence?
Working Paper 1: A systematic review of current evidence
Working-Paper-1This paper reviews recent literature and examines the global evidence on enterprise engagement in water and sanitation, including evidence concerning if and how poor households and communities benefit, and the ways in which civil society organisations engage with and support small-scale enterprise development.
Enterprise roles in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste
Working Papers 2A, 2B and 2C: These papers provide an overview of current enterprise roles in supporting water and sanitation in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste respectively, and investigate the dynamics currently shaping that role, drawing on the views of enterprises, government and civil society organizations in each country.
Working Paper 2A: Incentives for enterprise engagement in Indonesia

Working-Paper-2a

(English version)

(Bahasa Indonesia version)

Working Paper 2B: Incentives for enterprise engagement in Vietnam

Working-Paper-2b

(English version)

(Vietnamese version)

Working Paper 2C: Incentives for enterprise engagement in Timor-Leste

Working-Paper-2c

How do costs vary in sanitation value chains in remote Vietnam and Indonesia and what are the implications for affordability?
Working Paper 3: Sanitation value chains in low-density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam
Working-Paper-3This working paper synthesises two country-level studies on sanitation value-chains in low-density settings in four districts in Indonesia and Vietnam. It presents actual costs along the chains and highlights the challenges and opportunities to support affordable sanitation in remote, rural locations, where poverty levels are often high.
What traits, drivers and barriers affect water and sanitation enterprise roles in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste?
Working Paper 4: Traits, drivers and barriers of water and sanitation entrepreneurs and enterprises in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste
Working-Paper-4This working paper provides insights drawn from three country-level studies on the motivations, drivers and barriers experienced by 172 water and sanitation enterprises in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste. Entrepreneurial and pro-social traits are explored, including their connections with enterprise success. Key success factors and typical challenges are also highlighted.

Research Reports

Sanitation value-chains in low density settings
Research Reports 1 and 2: These reports provide findings of research into the sanitation value-chain in remote locations in Indonesia and Vietnam to understand the viability of market-based solutions in low density settings.
Research Report 1: Sanitation value-chain in Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia
Full report
Research-Report-1
Summary
Summary-Report-1
(English version)(Bahasa Indonesia version)
Research Report 2: Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Vietnam
Full report
Research-Report-2
Summary
Summary-Report-2
(English version)(Vietnamese version)
Enterprise traits, motivators, barriers and challenges
Research Reports 3, 4, 5 and 6: These reports provide findings of research into the motivators, traits and challenges faced by water and sanitation related enterprises in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste.
Research Report 3: Motivators and barriers for water and sanitation enterprises in Indonesia
Full report
Research-Report-3
Summary
Summary-Report-3
(English version)(Bahasa Indonesia version)
Research Report 4: Motivators and barriers for water enterprises in Vietnam
Full report
Research-Report-4
Summary
Summary-Report-4
(English version)(Vietnamese version)
Research Report 5: Motivators and barriers for sanitation enterprises in Vietnam
Full report
Research-Report-5
Summary
Summary-Report-5
(English version)(Vietnamese version)
Research Report 6: Motivations, barriers and opportunities for water and sanitation enterprises in Timor-Leste
Full report
Research-Report-6
Summary
Summary-Report-6
(English version)(Tetum version)
Research Report 7: Access to piped water services from private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam.
Full report
Research-Report-7

Academic Journal Papers and Conference Papers

  Willetts (2017) Private sector roles in service delivery: the complex political economy of local government roles in market facilitation and regulation. Presented at Australiasian Aid Conference, Autralian National University, Canberra February 15-16 2017
Grant, M., Dominish, E., Carrard, N., Buy, L., Ha, H., Nghiem, T. (2016), Reducing or increasing inequalities? The role of private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam, Development Bulletin, No 77
Murta, J.C.D., Willetts, J.R.M. & Triwahyudi, W., ‘Sanitation entrepreneurship in rural Indonesia: a closer look’, Environm Dev Sustain (2016). doi:10.1007/s10668-016-9883-7.

Article sharable link: http://rdcu.be/m9bW

  Carrad, N., Grant, M., Willetts, J., Bui Ha, L., Nghiem, T., Thu Ha, N., Tran, N. 2016, ‘Are poor households connecting? Private water enterprises in rural Vietnam’, PowerPoint presentation presented at the WASH Futures 2016 Conference, Brisbane, May 2016
  Willetts, J., Carrad, N., Grant, M., Murta, J. 2016, ‘Private and social enterprise in water and sanitation service delivery’, PowerPoint presentation presented at the WASH Futures 2016 Conference as part of the training session ‘Private Sector and Marketing Exchange Approaches for Equitable WASH Outcomes’, Brisbane, May 2016
  Willetts, J., Carrad, N., Grant, M., Murta, J. 2016, ‘Developing successful enterprises’, PowerPoint presentation presented at the WASH Futures 2016 Conference as part of the training session ‘Private Sector and Marketing Exchange Approaches for Equitable WASH Outcomes’, Brisbane, May 2016
  Willetts, J., Carrad, N., Grant, M., Murta, J. 2016, ‘Enabling equity in rural water supply – Vietnam case study’, PowerPoint presentation presented at the WASH Futures 2016 Conference as part of the training session ‘Private Sector and Marketing Exchange Approaches for Equitable WASH Outcomes’, Brisbane, May 2016
 WWW 2015 ppt Willetts, J., Carrard, N. and Gero, A. 2015 Perspectives of small-scale water enterprises: Motivators, drivers and barriers, Powerpoint presentation, presented at Stockholm World Water Week, August 2015
WEDC 2015 paper Willetts, J. Murta, J., Gero, A., Carrard, N. & Harris, D. 2015 Political economy influences on enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste, Refereed Paper, 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough University, UK, July 2015

 

 

 

WEDC 2015 ppt Willetts, J. Murta, J., Gero, A., Carrard, N. & Harris, D. 2015 Political economy influences on enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste, Powerpoint presentation, presented at 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough University, UK, July 2015
 WEDC 2014 paper Gero, A., Thanh, D. T., Mohr, S., Rickwood, P., Halcrow, G., & Willetts, J. 2014, ‘Relying on markets to address human rights: sanitation supply chain analysis in low-density settings’, Refereed Paper, 37th WEDC International Conference, Hanoi , Vietnam, September 2014

 

 

 WEDC 2014 ppt Gero, A., Thanh, D. T., ‘Relying on markets to address human rights: sanitation supply chain analysis in low-density settings. Insights from Vietnam’, PowerPoint presentation, presented at the 37th WEDC International Conference, 15-19 September 2014
Dev Bulletin front page Gero, A., Murta, J., Leong, L., Willetts, J., ‘Incompatible Philosophies or Complementary Roles? Civil Society and Business Engagement in the Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Sector’, PowerPoint presentation, presented at the Development Futures Conference 2013, 21 – 22

 

 

 Systematic review paper Gero, A., Carrard, N., Murta, J., Willetts, J. 2013, ‘Private and social enterprise roles in WASH for the poor: A systematic review’, Review Paper, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

(Link to the publisher’s website)

 

 

Systematic review poster Murta, J., Gero., A., Willetts, J., Carrard, N. 2014, ‘Small Private Enterprise Engagement in WASH. Gathering the Evidence’, Poster presented at the WASH Conference 2014, 24-25 March 2014

 

 

 

 WASH 2014 ppt Willetts, J., Murta, J., ‘Optimising civil society, private enterprise and public sector roles. Insights from a political economy analysis in three Southeast Asian nations’, PowerPoint presentation, presented at the WASH Conference 2014, 24-25 March 2014

 

And see here for ISF’s past and ongoing WASH work